These are the vocabulary words you are responsible for from Chapters 4, 5, and 6 (larger-font terms only). Note that you will be held responsible, on exams, for the term names when provided with the definitions (definitions are as found in italics on the pages reached by clicking on terms; exams can consist of more than just vocabulary word definitions, e.g., figure-based questions and bonus questions of various sorts are also permissible).

Use for studying for exam number 2.

WaterPolar covalent bond Polar substance (molecule)Cohesion Adhesion Surface tension,  Kinetic energy Heat Temperature,  Celsius scale,  Calorie,  Kilocalorie (kcal),  Joule,  Specific heat,  Heat of vaporization,  Evaporative cooling,  Solution,  Solvent SoluteAqueous solution Hydration shell HydrophilicColloid HydrophobicNonpolar substanceLipidMolecular mass,  Mole,  Molarity,  Hydrogen ion Hydroxide ion,  Hydronium ion Acid Base pH pH buffer Ocean acidification,  Acid precipitation,  Selective permeabilityAmphipathic,  Lipid bilayerPhospholipidCholesterolFluid mosaic modelMembrane proteinIntegral (membrane) proteinsPeripheral (membrane) proteinsTransmembrane proteinGlycolipid,  Glycoprotein Transport proteinNutrientAquaporin,  Diffusion,  Passive diffusionConcentration gradient,  Up a concentration gradientDown a concentration gradientPassive transportOsmosisTonicity,  Isotonic solution (Isotonic) Hypertonic solution (hypertonic) Hypotonic solution (hypotonic) Osmoregulation,  Turgidity (turgid) Flaccidity (flaccid) Plasmolysis Facilitated diffusionIon channel,  Gated channel,  Active transportSodium-potassium pump Membrane potential Electrochemical gradient Electrogenic pump,  Proton pump Cotransport Exocytosis Endocytosis Ligand Element Compound Essential elements Trace elements,  Atom Neutron Proton ElectronAtomic nucleus,  Dalton Atomic number Mass number,  Atomic mass Isotope Radioactive isotope,  EnergyPotential energyElectron shell Valence electrons Valence shell,  Orbital,  Chemical bond MetabolismAnabolismCatabolismATPADPKinetic energy GlucoseFermentationAnaerobicAerobic respiration AerobicCellular respirationMitochondriaRedox reactions,  OxidationReductionReducing agent Oxidizing agent NAD+Electron transport chainFinal electron acceptorGlycolysisPyruvate oxidation Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) Carbon dioxideOxidative phosphorylation Substrate-level phosphorylation Acetyl CoA,  Cytochromes,  ATP synthase Chemiosmosis Proton-motive forceAlcohol fermentation Lactic acid fermentation Obligate anaerobe,  Facultative anaerobe Beta oxidation,  Photosynthesis Autotroph Heterotroph Mesophyll,  Stomata,  Thylakoid Chlorophyll Light reactionCalvin cycle Dark reaction (Calvin cycle)NADP+ Photophosphorylation Carbon fixation Wavelength,  Electromagnetic spectrum,  Visible light,  Photon Spectrophotometer,  Absorption spectrum,  Chlorophyll a Action spectrum,  Chlorophyll b Carotenoids,  Photosystems Reaction center (complex) Light-harvesting complex,  Primary electron acceptor Photosystem II Photosystem I Cyclic electron flow Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P),  Carbon fixation Rubisco,  Reduction Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (BuBP),  C3 plants,  Photorespiration,  Bundle-sheath cells,  PEP carboxylase,  Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM),  CAM plants CellCell biologyMicroscopy Light microscopy (microscope) OrganelleElectron microscope,  Scanning electron microscope,  Transmission electron microscope,  Cell fractionation,  CytosolEukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell CytoplasmPlasma membraneCell nucleus (nucleus)Nuclear membraneNuclear envelope,  Nuclear lamina,  ChromosomeChromatin NucleolusRibosomeEndomembrane systemVesicleEndoplasmic reticulum (ER) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)Glycoprotein Transport vesicleGolgi apparatusLysosomeEndocytosisPhagocytosisVacuole Food vacuole Contractile vacuole,  Central vacuole,  Mitochondria Chloroplast Endosymbiont (theory)Cristae Mitochondrial matrix,  Thylakoid Granum Stroma Plastid,  Peroxisome,  CytoskeletonMotor protein,  Microtubule Centrosome Centrioles Flagella (eukaryotic)CiliaBasal body,  Dyneins,  Microfilament Actin Cortex,  Myosin,  PseudopodiaCytoplasmic streaming,  Intermediate filaments Cell wallPrimary cell wall,  Middle lamella,  Secondary cell wall,  Extracellular matrix (ECM) Collagen Proteoglycans Fibronectin,  Integrins,  Cell junctions,  Plasmodesmata,  Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junections Cell signaling,  Signal transduction pathway Local regulators,  Hormones (Paracrine signaling) Reception Signal transduction (transduction) Response,  Ligand (Receptor protein) G protein linked (coupled) receptor G protein,  Tyrosine kinase receptor (receptor tyrosine kinase) Ligand-gated channel,  Protein kinase Protein phosphatase Second messenger Cyclic AMP Adenylyl cyclase,  Inositol triphosphate (IP3)