∞ generated and posted on 2016.08.25 ∞
Series of membrane-associated molecules that sequentially extract energy from subatomic particles and use that energy to pump protons.
Also known as electron transport systems (ETS), electron transport chains are associated with both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. They are found in all organisms except obligate fermenters.
Where the energetic electrons that are passed to electron transport chains come from varies and in fact can be quite diverse, ranging from the photon-excited electrons of chlorophyll in photosynthesis to the NADH and FADH2 of cellular respiration to electron-rich (reduced) inorganic substances as seen with numerous bacteria such as those found in association with deep sea hydrothermal vents.