Study of the interface of as well as movement between otherwise separate ecosystems.
This is particularly as between adjacent ecosystems, such as between a and surrounding . The important questions are both what controls these interactions, how they can change, and what are their consequences.
Landscape ecology can be viewed as an extension especially of ecosystem ecology as that too deals with movement/flow of , though rather than considering these things within ecosystems, landscape ecology addresses them as they occur between ecosystems. By necessity, a large component of landscape ecology is the impact of landscape modification of surrounding ecosystems.