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Means of visually probability theory calculations particularly for estimating genotype frequencies among progeny of specific crosses.
The Punnett square is most useful for crosses in which only a single locus is considered since these involve only a 2 × 2 output. To some degree the Punnett square may also be employed where two loci along two alleles at each locus are considered. The resulting 4 × 4 matrix is about as large as may be useful, however.
By three loci, with two alleles at each, the size is already up to 8 × 8, or 64 total combinations. Consequently, for doing genetics calculations above the very basic it is imperative that one learn the basics of probability theory.
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