Recombinant DNA

∞ generated and posted on 2016.01.01 ∞

Genetic material that has formed via the splicing together of genetic material from two or more different organisms.

Recombination DNA is what is produced in the course of gene cloning where you take DNA from one individual, typically though not always a difference species, and insert that DNA into the genome of a different organism; DNA from one organism thus is recombined with DNA from another organism.

The formation of recombinant DNA involves the taking of DNA from two different sources, cutting them so that one can be inserted into the other, and then covalently attaching the two pieces once they have become physically associated. This combined DNA then is inserted into an organism, such as Escherichia coli, within which the DNA is sustained and replicated.

If enzymatically cut, then this involves enzymes called restriction endonucleases. The DNA that has been inserted into often is a plasmid, or a bacteriophage (or more generally, a cloning vector). The enzyme that covalently attaches the DNA is called DNA ligase. And the process by which DNA is inserted into the target organism often is transformation (or, instead, transduction).

See also, clone, clone (biotechnology), gene cloning, subcloning, and recombinant DNA technology.