associated with nucleic acid particularly that have the effect of blocking replication.

Damages to DNA are changes that have the effect of blocking the manipulation of genotype rather than changes in the content of genotype, except to the extent that information may be lost in direct, physical association with the damage.

Numerous mechanisms exist that deal with damages that have already occurred, and these are in addition to numerous mechanisms that serve to minimize the occurrence of DNA damage to begin with (e.g., such as are associated with the action of and ).

are factors that, not surprisingly, can damage DNA. Many of these also can serve as mutagens, a result that occurs at least in part because the use of to deal with damages that cannot be repaired by other means. Particularly, if damages to DNA re not repaired then a cell, or virus, can or at least fail to successfully reproduce.

DNA damages in other words are not mutations and not an but instead a lesion associated with DNA, one that blocks DNA replication until repaired, e.g., as equivalent to ink poured onto the page of a book rather than a change in what words or letters a page contains, with the latter analogous instead to a mutation.

Note also that the concepts of RNA damage as well as protein damage also exist, though these can be less crucial to the survival of organisms, except for possessing RNA genomes. In addition, the impact of on nucleic acids essentially is one of damage.

Beware, beware, beware, it is more common than not for people to confuse the concept of DNA damage with that of DNA mutation, basically equating the two. Beware!