Food-chain length limitations that are due to a magnification of stochastic in the of species populations found at one or more lower .

Chain length is reference to whether there are versus versus within an environment.

Basically, higher trophic levels can only so long as there is sufficient around. Temporary dips in food supplies – e.g., in prey – can result in substantial in species already existing in small number, making them susceptible to extinction.

The more dynamic the environment in this regard then the more likely that species found at higher trophic levels will go extinct.

See by contrast the energetic hypothesis.