Study of interactions between conspecifics within environments.

As a , if something can be studied ecologically both in terms of only a single species and otherwise can be done without focusing too extensively on single, isolated organisms, (e.g., such as in terms of ), then resulting interactions can be inferred to be something that is considered under the guise of population ecology.

Generally these would in some manner involve intraspecific interactions, though those interactions will not always be direct nor obvious.

If instead it is organisms that are being studied then that is more , , or .

Alternatively, if other species or instead abiotic components of environments are also being considered then it is community ecology or ecosystem ecology, respectively, that is being considered.