Serological Tests

∞ generated and posted on 2016.02.16 ∞

Antibody-based assays used for detection, identification, quantification, and characterization such as of microorganisms.

The basic idea behind serological tests is that highly specific antibody binding to specific antigens is detected in some manner. This detection allows either indication of the presence of the antigen or even indication of the concentration of the antigen.

In addition, though going beyond simply testing and become more of a technique, it is possible to manipulate the antigen in some manner, such as towards cell isolation or even chemotherapy.

Serological tests include, though are not limited to, agglutination tests (both direct and indirect or passive; see for example the slide agglutination test), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, including both direct ELISAs and indirect ELISAs), western blot, precipitin tests, immunodiffusion tests, immunoelectrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, and various fluorescent-antibody techniques including fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS), direct fluorescent antibody tests, and indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Home pregnancy tests that use lateral-flow technology are an additional and perhaps most publicly familiar example of a serological test.