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Process by which new individual organisms are created.
Reproduction can be differentiated into asexual reproduction versus sexual reproduction. In either case, fundamental to the process is replication, prior to the formation of new individuals, of hereditary material, which is then supplied to the new individual.
For reproduction to be reproduction, the new individual, the offspring, must become separated or at least distinguishable to some extent from the parent. Thus, cell division in itself is not necessarily synonymous with reproduction.
Also, note that fertilization is not necessary in all cases for reproduction. Its absence is always the case with asexual reproduction. In addition, any time a new generation is formed from a spore, then in fact reproduction has occurred without fertilization first taking place, in this case of a haploid individual. See, for example, alternation of generations.
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