Long-term trends in levels of , intensity of , , and patterns.

Long-term here represents multiple years and particularly as applied to patterns of . Microclimate by contrast can change over much short time scales.

Local climate is a key determinant of ecosystem characteristics. in turn tends to result in ecosystem change. Such changes typically can be to the detriment of the local or even global of the species involved. Indeed, with climate change often comes local extinction which, in the absence of of dispersal to locations where climates are more favorable can lead to more global and extinction.