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Short chain of sugar moeities.
The smallest possible oligosaccharide is a disaccharide and otherwise oligosaccharides fill the size/length gap between monosaccharides and polysaccharides. The concept is relevant particularly given the glycosylation – literally the attachment of sugars – to other molecules such as proteins and lipids. This is such as one sees with proteglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and even lipopolysaccharide.
Oligosaccharides are what differentiation the red blood cell antigens associated with the ABO blood group system.
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