Association between two or more organisms where at least one gains at the expense of at least one other.

Victim-exploiter interactions abound in the . Interspecific victim-exploiter interactions, and include:

Though in these examples the exploitation is primarily for the sake of stealing nutrients from victims, it is possible to steal other than parts of their bodies from organisms, such as a place to live.

…exploiters gain benefit from their victims but also generate on the latter, leading to an in traits that reduce victim susceptibility. In turn, the change in the victims could select for a corresponding change in the exploiters and this process goes on and on…

Of particular relevance to and are those taking place between exploiters and victims, since they are important drivers of plant-pathogen, predator-prey, and .

between organisms also exist that can be classified in terms of exploitation and victimization. Often, though, exploiters are described as or whereas victims can be described as .